The C. A. G. E. questions are used to screen for substance use disorders.
C – Have you ever felt you should Cut down on your drinking or drug use?
A – Have people Annoyed you by criticizing or complaining about your drinking or drug use?
G – Have you ever felt bad or Guilty about your drinking or drug use?
E – Have you ever had a drink or drug in the morning (Eye-opener) to steady your nerves or to get rid of a hangover?
A total score of “2’ or greater is considered clinically significant and indicates the need for additional evaluation of substance use behavior.
The CAGE questionnaire, among other methods, has been extensively validated for use in identifying alcoholism. CAGE is considered a validated screening technique, with one study determining that CAGE test scores ≥2 had a specificity of 76% and a sensitivity of 93% for the identification of excessive drinking and a specificity of 77% and a sensitivity of 91% for the identification of alcoholism.